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Bibliography

Auerbach, Elizabeth S.  “Black Midwives in Mississippi: The Professionalizing of a Folk Role.” Human Mosaic. 3(1). 125-132, 1968. 

Brewin, Dorothy, Françoise J. Carré, and Christa Marie Kelleher. Caring for women: A profile of the midwifery workforce in Massachusetts. UMass Boston, Center for Women in Politics & Public Policy, 2011

Bureau, US Census. "Data." State Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2017. <https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2016/demo/popest/state-total.html>.

Data Catalog. World Bank Data. The World Bank, 2017. data.worldbank.org/data-catalog. July 23, 2017. 

Devitt, N. "The Statistical Case for Elimination of the Midwife: Fact versus Prejudice, 1890-1935 (Part I)." Women & Health. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1979. Web. 12 Aug. 2017.

Elizabeth Seton Childbearing Center (ESCbC) Closure News and Information. birthcenter.typepad.com/friends/ N.p., 1 Sept. 2003. Web. 12 Aug. 2017.

Fraser, Gertrude Jacinta. African American Midwifery in the South: Dialogues of Birth, Race, and Memory. N.p.: Harvard UP, 1998. Print.

Goode, K. and Katz Rothman, B. (2017), African-American Midwifery, a History and a Lament. American Journal of Economic Sociology, 76: 65–94. doi:10.1111/ajes.12173

Holmes, Linda Janet. "Midwives, Southern black." Encyclopedia of Childbearing: Critical Perspectives (1992).

Kaufman, Martin.  'American medical education', in Ronald L. Numbers (editor), The education of American physicians, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press, 1980, p. 1 1.

Ladd-Taylor, Molly. 'Grannies' and 'Spinsters': Midwife Education under the Sheppard-Towner Act, Journal of Social History,Vol. 22, No. 2 (Winter, 1988), pp. 255-275

Leavitt, Judith Walzer., and Ronald L. Numbers. Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health. Madison, WI: U of Wisconsin, 1997. Print.

Lemons, J. S. "The Sheppard-Towner Act: Progressivism in the 1920s." Journal of American History (Bloomington, Ind.). U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2017.

Linder, Forrest E. and Robert D. Grove. (1947). Vital Statistics Rates in the United States 1900-1940. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.

Litoff, Judy Barrett. “Forgotten Women: American Midwives at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.” Pp. 425-441 in Childbirth: Changing Ideas and Practices in Britain and America 1600 to the Present, edited by Phillip K. Wilson, Ann Dally, and Charles R. King. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. 

Lobenstine, Ralph Waldo. “The Influence of the Midwife upon Infant and Maternal Morbility and Mortality,” American Journal of Obstetrics and the Diseses of Women and Children 63 (1911): 876-880. Paper read before the New York Academy of Medicine, February 23, 1911.

Logan, Onnie Lee. "As told to Katherine Clark.(1989)." Motherwit: An Alabama Midwife's Story.

Mathews, Holly F. "Killing the medical self-help tradition among African Americans: The case of lay midwifery in North Carolina, 1912–1983." African Americans in the South: Issues of Race, Class, and Gender 25 (1992): 60.

Member Search Results - American Association of Birth Centers. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2017. <http://www.birthcenters.org/search/newsearch.asp>.

Mitford, Jessica. The American Way of Birth (New York: Dutton/Penguin Books, 1992). 173.

Moehling, Carolyn M. and Melissa A. Thomasson. (in press) “The Political Economy of Saving Mothers and Babies: The Politics of State Participation in the Sheppard-Towner Program.” Journal of Economic History.

"National Center for Health Statistics." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 03 May 2017. Web. 24 July 2017.

Nicholson, William R., “The Midwife Situation.” Transactions of the American Gynecological Society, 42 (1917), 623.

"Number of Certified Nurse-Midwives (CNM) / Certified Midwives (CM) by State." American Midwifery Certification Board. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Aug. 2017.

QuickStats: Percentage of Births Attended by Midwives --- United States, 2003." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d. Web. 24 July 2017.

Rooks, Judith. Midwifery and Childbirth in America. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1999. Print.

Santa Cruz, Jamie. “Call the Midwife.” The Atlantic. June 12, 2015. www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/06/midwives-are-making-a-comeback/395456/. July 23, 107. 

Savitt, Todd L. "Medicine and slavery." Urbana: University of Illinois Press(1978): 293-307.

Smith, Susan L. "The Midwife Problem in the Far West: Immigrant Midwives in Hawaii and Washington." East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. By Steven Tötösy De Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, U of Alberta, 1997. 163-71. Print.

Smith, Susan L. Japanese American Midwives: Culture, Community, and Health Politics, 1880–1950, Journal Of American History, 93:3, December 2006. University of Illinois Press, 2005. 916-917.
 
 
 
Smith, W. Eugene. Nurse Midwife, 1951. Digital image. Time: Life. Time Magazine, n.d. Web.                         
 
Susie, Debra Anne. In the way of our grandmothers: A cultural view of twentieth-century midwifery in Florida. University of Georgia Press, 2009.

"The Sheppard–Towner Maternity and Infancy Act." US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2017 <http://history.house.gov/HistoricalHighlight/Detail/36084>.

Thompson, Joyce E., Dr., DrPH, RN, CNM, FAAN, FACNM, and Varney Burst, Helen, RN, CNM, MSN, DHL (Hon.), FACNM. A History of Midwifery in the United States The Midwife Said Fear Not. N.p.: Springer, 2015. Print.

 Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812. New York: Vintage, 2006. Print.

W.A. Plecker, “The Midwife Problem in Virginia,” Virginia Medical Semi-Monthly, 19 (December 1914), 456-458.

Watson, Helen. "The Midwives of New Orleans," Tulane University Press, 1921.

Weitz, Rose and Deborah Sullivan. 1992 “Midwife Licensing.” Pp. 245-247 in Encyclopedia of Childbearing: Critical Perspectives, edited by Barbara Katz Rothman. Phoenix: The Onyx Press.

Wertz, Richard W., and Dorothy C. Wertz. Lying-in: A history of childbirth in America. Yale University Press, 1989